Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Social Barriers - from the Thunderbirds

◦Subject (Math/Science)

◦Skillset based on gender alone

◦Family Backgrounds

◦Value of Education

◦Cultural Norms

◦Programs/ lack of programs

◦Programs put in place to exclude women

◦Social Tension

◦Low social status of women and traditional image of the role of women in society

◦ Negative perception of the education of girls and women

◦Girl’s education seen as incompatible with religious or traditional principles

◦Early marriage and pregnancy

◦Over-importance given to dowry

◦Low educational level of parents

◦Difficulty for educated girls to get married


Value of education scholarship...
Archer, L., Hutchings, M., Ross, A., Leathwood, C., Gilchrist, R., & Phillips, D. (2003). Higher Education and Social Class. RoutledgeFalmer. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from barriers in education&ots=KYqVoecVzb&sig=__oXxKHRT3NtxQPTO-kXF9gz6h4#v=onepage&q=social barriers in education&f=false

Political Barriers to Education - from Juicy Dragons

● (S) Policies that exclude access to education
a. Females
i. Brock, T. (2010). Young adults and higher education: Barriers and breakthroughs to success. The Future of Children, 20(1). 109-132. doi:10.1353/foc.0.0040
ii. Kane, J. (2006). Including and excluding girls. Gender and Education, 18(5), 561-565. doi:10.1080/09540250600881725
● (A) Political instability
a. countries at war
b. political unrest, constant changes in government and leadership
c. corruption-Child Soldiers
d. Child Refugees
i. Educate a Child, Barrier: Refugee (2014), retrieved from:
ii. UNESCO, 2013. Children still battling to go to school. Education for All Global Monitoring Report Policy Paper 10. Retrieved from:

● (R) Underrepresentation of women in decision making
a. Rai, Shirin. (2014). From barrier to enabler: how politics can help girls live up to their potential. The Guardian. Retrieved from
b. Steyn, G. M., & Parsaloi, M. W. (2014). Moving towards Gender Equality: The Case of Female Head Teachers in Kenya. Gender & Behaviour, 12(3), 5980-5993.
c. Howell, J. (2006). Women's Political Participation in China: in whose interests elections?. Journal Of Contemporary China, 15(49), 603-619. doi:10.1080/10670560600836614
● (R) Weak legislation on
a. official age for first marriage, sexual abuse, and pregnancies in school
i. Tanzania: Child Marriage Harms Girls. (2014). Retrieved from
ii. Human Rights Watch. (2014).No Way Out: Marriage and Human Rights Abuses in Tanzania. Retrieved from
iii. Child Marriage and The Law. (2015). Retrieved from
iv. Chilisa, B. (2002). National Policies on Pregnancy in Education Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Botswana. Gender & Education, 14(1), 21-35. doi:10.1080/09540250120098852
● (R) Policies on infrastructure, safety, and abundance
a. EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN. (2005). Herizons, 1810.
b. Barriers to Education. (2013). Retrieved from
c. Adelman, H.,  & Taylor, L.  (2011). Expanding School Improvement Policy to Better Address Barriers to Learning. Policy Futures in Education. 9, 431-436. Retrived from

● (A) Weak legislation on
a. official school entry
b. obligatory enrollment
c. enrollment for undocumented immigrants (*Malaysia)
i. UNESCO. (2004). Gender and education for all: The leap to equality. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2003/2004.

Economic Barriers from AMM

• What percentages of governments’ budgets go towards education? Specifically within OECD countries.
o The top three nations (Finland, Korea, and Canada) spent 4% of their budgets, in 2014. The average for OECD nations was 3.8%, yet the United States was slightly less (3.7%).
o For a better visual, see here:
• How many countries have primary public education?
o Most countries have free, compulsory primary education.
o Most countries require the beginning of secondary education. (Africa, is the only continent where this is predominantly untrue.)
o Completion of secondary education, is not mandatory in most countries though, regardless if it is tuition free.

• Public education in states, federal funds, K-12 education funding
• Barrier #1:
o Federal funding for public schools in U.S., K-12 education
o Provide teachers’ professional development and training
o Provide help for students who do not speak English
o Supply scientifically based research for better instruction to students
• Barrier #2:
o Cost of HIV/AIDS
o Money spent on teacher’s salaries that include absences due to HIV-related illnesses
o Money spent on educating teachers on how to cope with HIV/AIDS

NCEE » Comparative Data for Top Performing Countries. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2015, from
Education - WORLD Policy Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2015, from
Grassly, N., Desai, K., Pegurri, E., Sikazwe, A., Malambo, I., Siamatowe, C., & Bundy, D. (2003). The economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Zambia. AIDS, 17(7), 1039-1044. file:///Users/922slee/Downloads/The_economic_impact_of_HIV_AIDS_on_the_education.13.pdf

Archived: 10 Fact About K-12 Education Funding. (n.d.).

Thursday, February 5, 2015

Reading #6

While reading, consider the following:
  • What is gender parity?
  • Describe regional gender parity in primary and secondary education.  What are some of the contributing factors to varying levels of participation by males and females? 
  • Describe gender parity and participation in TVET.  What are some of the contributing factors to varying levels of participation by males and females?
  • What are the similarities and differences in gender participation in TVET across regions?
  • Regarding gender biases in education, what are some of the interventions that seem to result in positive improvements?
The reading quiz for Reading #6 will be held on February 12, due to the extra day allowed for lesson planning.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

More information - Pacayitas

Rachel asked Paige about how to find Pacayitas and the butterfly farm on Google maps.  Here's her response:

Often Pacayitas doesn’t show up on the map.  If you type the neighboring town, Mollejones, Costa Rica into google maps and zoom in, you can find Pacayitas in the lower left (just a bit southwest from Mollejones).  You can actually see the butterfly farm on the map, at the bottom edge of town, by a bus stop.  It is called Finca Vialig.  Here's the link:

In response to a question asking Paige to clarify local agricultural activities, here's how she responded:

The main product is sugar cane.  There is also some coffee production, but pretty minimal.  Most families have gardens or plants such as bananas, guava, berries, lettuce, cabbage, carrots, etc in their yards.  There are several dairies outside of town, and they have a cheese factory in the town. 

Don't hesitate to ask additional questions!

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Cultural Differences and Agricultural Education

In today's class we discussed how classroom cultural norms vary across the world.  Interested in learning more?  Check out the "Supplemental Reading" folder found within the "Resources" folder on ANGEL.  There I have posted a practice dialogue found in a Korean "Agricultural English" textbook.

The dialogue is found in the chapter on companion animals.  Consider the following:
  • What was surprising to you about this dialogue?
  • Can you see elements of Korean culture in this dialogue?
  • What would you expect in a dialogue on this topic coming from a U.S. American cultural perspective?
Please share your thoughts and comments by using the comment box below.